Stem Cells and Hair Regeneration for Men and Women
The growth of human hair is an extremely complex process and hair loss is dependent upon various variables incorporating heredity, hormonal influence, environment issues, and health condition. Infections iron or Vitamin D deficiency, autoimmune disorders and metabolic issues can additionally have a part in hair loss. Nutrition also plays an important part in whether the body has the ability to produce healthy hair. Male pattern baldness affecting 35 million American men, otherwise called androgenetic alopecia (AGA), is X-linked and therefore largely linked to maternal genetic influence. Twenty to thirty million American women also suffer from different degrees of alopecia.
Hair grows at a normal rate of approximately half an inch every month. The average individual has 100,000 to 150,000 hairs on their scalp at any given time. One single strand of hair is comprised of multiple microscopic components; all of which contribute to the body’s capability to develop and maintain healthy hair. The body produces three separate types of hair; the hair type found on the human scalp is regarded as terminal hair.
Hair Growth Basics
People are always in a state of developing and losing our hair. The scalp sheds hair that is dead or damaged every day. Alopecia results when the hair we lose is not replaced by new growth. One of the normal patterns that is seen as people advance in age and start to lose essential terminal hairs on the scalp area is for it to be replaced with vellus hairs, very similar to what was present when the individual was first born as an infant before the scalp filled in with permanent hair. There are three stages in the hair development cycle.
Phase One-Active Growth-Anagen
In the anagen stage the majority of all hairs strands are actively developing. The span of anagen is on average three to four years however can in a few cases be as long as nine years. As a result of a shortened anagen phase, people might recognize that their hair is coming to be finer and more slender with less color properties. Most of our hair is in the anagen growth phase. Only a small percentage of our hair strands are in one of the two remaining phases of cyclical hair growth.
Phase Two-Regressive Phase- Catagen
The catagen, or hair loss stage, lasts approximately three to four weeks. On any regular day, most individuals shed anywhere between 75-100 scalp hairs. These hairs are lost to make way for new growth hair that will soon appear. Sometimes this hair loss is connected with brushing ones hair or shampooing.
Phase Three-Resting Phase- Telogen
Referred to as telogen and lasting a couple of months, this is the stage where hair is resting or sleeping. Hairs in the resting stage are not developing or falling out. They are basically sleeping. This implies that there is no active growth going on with that hair strand.
There are numerous hair restoration systems and cosmetic hair procedures accessible today. Endeavors are made to match hair types and hair direction to support optimal appearance. There has been some recent interest in hair restoration by the diffuse injection of Platelet Rich Plasma (mostly growth factors and a few stem cells). Medications are an alternative. Currently, Rogaine and Propecia are the main two medicines for baldness approved by the FDA. They are more successful for maintaining hair already on the scalp than they are in re-developing hair. Pharmaceuticals like Propecia can’t restore the large healthy follicles in androgenic alopecia and have been reported to have numerous untoward symptoms, some of which appear to be permanent even after discontinuing the medication. Recent research has concentrated on Vitamin D and the Vitamin D receptor to stimulate hair follicle development. Over the past decade, there has been much hope and buildup for a reasonable medication for baldness utilizing stem cell technology .
For years, scientists had imagined that individuals experiencing hair loss had a depletion of hair follicles and follicle stem cells, which are important to develop hair. Dr. George Cotsarelis, a professor of dermatology at the University of Pennsylvania, published a study demonstrating that bald people have the same number of follicle stem cells as those with hair. The study was published early 2011 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation. Cotsarelis and his team investigated skin cells from the bald and non-bald parts of the scalp of individuals with androgenetic alopecia. By utilizing distinctive markers to distinguish between stem cells and hair follicle progenitor cells, they were able to count the amount of every type and they discovered that there was the same number of follicle stem cells in the skin from bald scalps as there were in the skin from the non-bald scalps. An inability of stem cells in the scalp to develop into the sort of cells that make hair follicles may be an underlying explanation for male-pattern baldness. So if researchers could recognize the indicators that stimulate the stem cells into producing more hair follicle progenitor cells, then it might be conceivable to create bigger hair follicles that could develop hair. Such studies have indicated that men with male pattern baldness still have stem cells in follicle roots yet these stem cells lose the capability to initiate hair regeneration. Scientists have realized that these follicle stem cells require signals from inside the skin to develop hair, however the source of those signals has been unclear .
A recent ground breaking report from Yale (see Horsely, et. al. published in the Sept. 2, 2011 issue of Cell) seems to exhibit the efficacy of adipose derived stem cells in initiating these dorment hair follicles and developing new hair. Read more…
Horsley’s team watched that when hair dies, the layer of fat in the scalp that involves a large portion of the skins thickness shrivels. The point when hair development starts, the fat layer stretches in a methodology called adipogenesis. Researchers discovered that a sort of stem cells included in production of new fat units — adipose precursor cells — was needed for hair regeneration in mice. These precursor cells are the same stem cells isolated in stromal vascular fraction by the procedure utilized at the select affiliates inside the Regenerative Medicine Institute of Nevada. The Yale investigators also discovered these cells produce signal particles called PDGF(platelet derived growth factor), which are necessary to produce hair development in the mice. It still remains to be demonstrated that PDGF has the same chemical signal impact on human hair development. We do know that PDGF is an effective activator of human adult mesenchymal stem cells.
At this point in our information base, a pathway for really re-growing hair in androgenetic alopecia in a reliable and maintained way by fortifying dormant follicles in the scalp is Not completely depicted in people. However, it is conceivable to exploit the regenerative impacts of mesenchymal stem cells and growth factors to improve current hair replacement technology. SVF containing autologous adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells and growth factors (enriched with PRP containing extra growth factors from plasma) might be regulated to patients accepting hair replacement to minimize the possibility of transplant “shock” and subsequent graft loss.
The situation is different for auto-immune forms of alopecia, for example alopecia areata or totalis. There is a higher probability of success utilizing local and systemically deployed mesenchymal stem cells to treat these types of hair loss. See auto-immune alopecia (link to other part of web site)
Regenerative Medicine Institute of Nevada Protocol
The Regenerative Medicine Institute of Nevada is concentrating on the impacts of SVF Stromal Vascular Fraction (rich in adipose derived stem cells and development factors) on hair recovery and hair transplant sustainability. The study is taking a look at three control groups: SVF alone (SVF is administered locally and intravenously), SVF improved hair graft transplantation, and automated hair transplantation without SVF enhancement. The automated hair transplantation process we utilize, known as NeograftTM Follicle Unit Extraction (FUE) is utilized to transform healthy follicles from areas of abundance to areas of baldness and is intended for both men and women. The objective is to determine if follicle transfer technology enhanced by stromal vascular fraction might produce the best effects accessible. According to a Science Reports article published in 2012, “for androgenetic alopecia, autologous hair follicle unit transplantation (FUT) has clinically accomplished the restoration of proper hair appearance by controlling hair type and thickness and hair stream by means of the representation of natural hair orientation through surgical implantation of hair.” Read more…
Platelet Rich Plasma therapy (PRP) has been utilized for in hair restoration fin both men and women since the 1990’s. It can be an effective treatment option for people who have a variety of different forms of hair loss problems. PRP alone can begin to stimulate human dermal fibroblasts and may improve the blood supply to the scalp. This increases the delivery of increasing oxygen and nutrients to the hair bulbs. Many consider it a viable alternative to surgery. This treatment option can be used in both men and women suffering from hair loss.
It is a safe, quick, and less painful procedure compared to hair grafting surgery and it promotes natural healing. Although many clinics believe that PRP alone will assist in the re-growth of hair, in our clinic, we like to improve the odds as much as we can. For that reason, we at RMIN add additional cytokines and growth factors obtained from a tissue bank that is licensed to provide those ingredients for human use. In that way, we can provide a large multiple of greater numbers of cells that will assist in re-growing the hair. Additionally, we utilize advanced microneedling at the same time in order to create a mild injury that will attract the cytokines and growth factors to the area and keep them there so they can help the hair regrow. The recovery from Cytokine Growth Factor Therapy enhanced with PRP is short. Our usual suggestion is a series of session, down a month apart with a total of three sessions. Most patients will see some mild growth even after only the first session. One must understand that not all the hair follicles are in the same growth phase at the same time. For this reason, some hairs will start growing sooner than others will. A typical result from a full-course treatment is seen between 5-8 months.